(1) in proximity to; She was standing by the window. The rain was coming down hard and it pooled by her feet. (2) a: through or through the medium of b: in the direction of c: into the vicinity of and beyond; He entered by the door on the other side of the room. He strode quickly by her and slammed the window shut. He led her by the chair. She did not make a sound. (3) a: during the course of b: not later than; He had ridden by night. He knew he had to get to her by the time the sun rose. She was already cold, but that could have been from the window. (4) a: through the agency or instrumentality of b: born or begot of c: sired or borne by; She had been cursed by some witch. He could not help but think that this had been begotten by his affection. He blamed himself. (5) with witness of sanction of; He swore by the stars that he would save her. He had to save her. (6) a: in conformity with b: according to; He knew this had to be done by the laws. He could not cross the witch. He called her by name, hoping she could hear him. (7) a: on behalf of b: with respect to; He protected her by his kingdom for he was a prince by birth. She was important to the kingdom and to him. (8) in or to the amount or extent of; The light of the sun crept into the room despite the pouring rain. She was gone. He had missed it by mere moments. The door opened. (9) used as a function word to indicate successive units or increments; Slowly, she approached. Step by step, she came closer to him. (10) used as a function word in multiplication, in division, and in measurements; The small, ten foot by ten foot room seemed to be closing in on him. (11) in the opinion of, from the point of view of; She leaned toward him and smiled. “I can do things by myself.” 

Anna Kroon is a sophomore at the University of New Haven studying English with a concentration in writing. She has been published in the Pine Tree Poetry Collection as well as in Nana in the Chair and the Tales She Told